Function Definitions

Introduction

A function is defined by first declaring its type followed by a number of equations called clauses. Each clause consists of the function being defined applied to a number of patterns, followed by = and a term called the right-hand side. For example:

not : Bool  Bool
not true  = false
not false = true

Functions are allowed to call themselves recursively, for example:

twice : Nat  Nat
twice zero    = zero
twice (suc n) = suc (suc (twice n))

General form

The general form for defining a function is

f : (x₁ : A₁)    (xₙ : Aₙ)  B
f p₁  pₙ = d
f q₁  qₙ = e

where f is a new identifier, pᵢ and qᵢ are patterns of type Aᵢ, and d and e are expressions.

The declaration above gives the identifier f the type (x₁ : A₁) (xₙ : Aₙ) B and f is defined by the defining equations. Patterns are matched from top to bottom, i.e., the first pattern that matches the actual parameters is the one that is used.

By default, Agda checks the following properties of a function definition:

  • The patterns in the left-hand side of each clause should consist only of constructors and variables.

  • No variable should occur more than once on the left-hand side of a single clause.

  • The patterns of all clauses should together cover all possible inputs of the function, see Coverage Checking.

  • The function should be terminating on all possible inputs, see Termination Checking.

Special patterns

In addition to constructors consisting of constructors and variables, Agda supports two special kinds of patterns: dot patterns and absurd patterns.

Dot patterns

A dot pattern (also called inaccessible pattern) can be used when the only type-correct value of the argument is determined by the patterns given for the other arguments. The syntax for a dot pattern is .t.

As an example, consider the datatype Square defined as follows

data Square : Nat  Set where
  sq : (m : Nat)  Square (m * m)

Suppose we want to define a function root : (n : Nat) Square n Nat that takes as its arguments a number n and a proof that it is a square, and returns the square root of that number. We can do so as follows:

root : (n : Nat)  Square n  Nat
root .(m * m) (sq m) = m

Notice that by matching on the argument of type Square n with the constructor sq : (m : Nat) Square (m * m), n is forced to be equal to m * m.

In general, when matching on an argument of type D i₁ iₙ with a constructor c : (x₁ : A₁) (xₘ : Aₘ) D j₁ jₙ, Agda will attempt to unify i₁ iₙ with j₁ jₙ. When the unification algorithm instantiates a variable x with value t, the corresponding argument of the function can be replaced by a dot pattern .t. Using a dot pattern is optional, but can help readability. The following are also legal definitions of root:

Since Agda 2.4.2.4:

root₁ : (n : Nat)  Square n  Nat
root₁ _ (sq m) = m

Since Agda 2.5.2:

root₂ : (n : Nat)  Square n  Nat
root₂ n (sq m) = m

In the case of root₂, n evaluates to m * m in the body of the function and is thus equivalent to

root₃ : (n : Nat)  Square n  Nat
root₃ _ (sq m) = let n = m * m in m

Absurd patterns

Absurd patterns can be used when none of the constructors for a particular argument would be valid. The syntax for an absurd pattern is ().

As an example, if we have a datatype Even defined as follows

data Even : Nat  Set where
  even-zero  : Even zero
  even-plus2 : {n : Nat}  Even n  Even (suc (suc n))

then we can define a function one-not-even : Even 1 by using an absurd pattern:

one-not-even : Even 1  
one-not-even ()

Note that if the left-hand side of a clause contains an absurd pattern, its right-hand side must be omitted.

In general, when matching on an argument of type D i₁ iₙ with an absurd pattern, Agda will attempt for each constructor c : (x₁ : A₁) (xₘ : Aₘ) D j₁ jₙ of the datatype D to unify i₁ iₙ with j₁ jₙ. The absurd pattern will only be accepted if all of these unifications end in a conflict.

As-patterns

As-patterns (or @-patterns) can be used to name a pattern. The name has the same scope as normal pattern variables (i.e. the right-hand side, where clause, and dot patterns). The name reduces to the value of the named pattern. For example:

module _ {A : Set} (_<_ : A  A  Bool) where
  merge : List A  List A  List A
  merge xs [] = xs
  merge [] ys = ys
  merge xs@(x  xs₁) ys@(y  ys₁) =
    if x < y then x  merge xs₁ ys
             else y  merge xs ys₁

As-patterns are properly supported since Agda 2.5.2.

Case trees

Internally, Agda represents function definitions as case trees. For example, a function definition

max : Nat  Nat  Nat
max zero    n       = n
max m       zero    = m
max (suc m) (suc n) = suc (max m n)

will be represented internally as a case tree that looks like this:

max m n = case m of
  zero    n
  suc m'  case n of
    zero    suc m'
    suc n'  suc (max m' n')

Note that because Agda uses this representation of the function max, the clause max m zero = m does not hold definitionally (i.e. as a reduction rule). If you would try to prove that this equation holds, you would not be able to write refl:

data _≡_ {A : Set} (x : A) : A  Set where
  refl : x  x

-- Does not work!
lemma : (m : Nat)  max m zero  m
lemma = refl

Clauses which do not hold definitionally are usually (but not always) the result of writing clauses by hand instead of using Agda’s case split tactic. These clauses are highlighted by Emacs.

The --exact-split flag causes Agda to raise an error whenever a clause in a definition by pattern matching cannot be made to hold definitionally. Specific clauses can be excluded from this check by means of the {-# CATCHALL #-} pragma.

For instance, the above definition of max will be rejected when using the --exact-split flag because its second clause does not to hold definitionally.

When using the --exact-split flag, catch-all clauses have to be marked as such, for instance:

eq : Nat  Nat  Bool
eq zero    zero    = true
eq (suc m) (suc n) = eq m n
{-# CATCHALL #-}
eq _       _       = false

The --no-exact-split flag can be used to override a global --exact-split in a file, by adding a pragma {-# OPTIONS --no-exact-split #-}. This option is enabled by default.