Generating LaTeX

An experimental LaTeX-backend was added in Agda 2.3.2. It can be used as follows:

$ agda --latex {file}.lagda
$ cd latex
$ {latex-compiler} {file}.tex

where latex-compiler could be pdflatex, xelatex or lualatex, and file.lagda is a literate Agda TeX file. The source file must import the agda latex package by including the line \usepackage{agda}. Only the top-most module is processed, like with lhs2tex but unlike with the HTML-backend. If you want to process imported modules you have to call agda --latex manually on each of those modules.

The latex-backend checks if agda.sty is found by the latex environment. If it isn’t, a default agda.sty is copied from Agda’s data directory into the working directory (and thus made available to the latex environment). Colors, fonts, spacing etc can be modified by editing agda.sty and putting it somewhere where the latex environment can find it.

Unicode and LaTeX

LaTeX does not by default understand the UTF-8 character encoding. You can tell LaTeX to treat the input as UTF-8 using the ucs package by inserting the following code in the preamble of your source file:


Unicode characters are translated to LaTeX commands, so e.g. the following packages might be needed. You may need more packages if you use more unicode characters:


The ucs package does not contain definitions for all Unicode characters. If LaTeX complains about a missing definition for some character U+xxxx, then you can define it yourself:


It may also be necessary to instruct LaTeX to use a specific font encoding. The autofe package (from the ucs bundle) tries to select the font encoding automatically:


A complete LaTeX template can be found below.


LaTeX was never written with unicode in mind. Hacks like the ucs package makes it possible to use them, but for the best possible output consider using xelatex or lualatex instead. If you do, agda.sty is using the more complete XITS font by default.


Hiding code

Code that you do not want to show up in the output can be hidden by giving the argument hide to the code block:

-- the code here will not be part of the final document


Two or more spaces can be used to make the backend align code, as in the following example:

data: Set where
  zero  :suc   :_+_ : ℕ
zero   + n = n
suc m  + n = suc (m + n)

In more detail, the constraint on the indentation of the first token t on a line is determined as follows:

  • Let T be the set containing every previous token (in any code block) that is either the initial token on its line or preceded by at least one whitespace character.
  • Let S be the set containing all tokens in T that are not shadowed by other tokens in T. A token t₁ is shadowed by t₂ if t₂ is further down than t₁ and does not start to the right of t₁.
  • Let L be the set containing all tokens in S that start to the left of t, and E be the set containing all tokens in S that start in the same column as t.
  • The constraint is that t must be indented further than every token in L, and aligned with every token in E.

Note that if any token in L or E belongs to a previous code block, then the constraint may not be satisfied unless (say) the AgdaAlign environment is used in an appropriate way. If custom settings are used, for instance if \AgdaIndent is redefined, then the constraint discussed above may not be satisfied.


  • Here C is indented further than B:
   A  B
       C : Set
  • Here C is not (necessarily) indented further than B, because X shadows B:
   A  B  : Set
       C : Set

These rules are inspired by, but not identical to, the one used by lhs2TeX’s poly mode (see Section 8.4 of the manual for lhs2TeX version 1.17).

Vertical space

Code blocks are by default surrounded by vertical space. Use \AgdaNoSpaceAroundCode{} to avoid this vertical space, and \AgdaSpaceAroundCode{} to reenable it.

Note that, if \AgdaNoSpaceAroundCode{} is used, then empty lines before or after a code block will not necessarily lead to empty lines in the generated document. However, empty lines inside the code block do (by default) lead to empty lines in the output. The height of such empty lines can be controlled by the length \AgdaEmptySkip, which by default is \baselineskip.

Breaking up code blocks

Sometimes one might want to break up a code block into multiple pieces, but keep code in different blocks aligned with respect to each other. Then one can use the AgdaAlign environment. Example usage:

     code  (more code)
   aligned with "code"
     code  (aligned with (more code))

Note that AgdaAlign environments should not be nested.

Sometimes one might also want to hide code in the middle of a code block. This can be accomplished in the following way:


However, the result may be ugly: extra space is perhaps inserted around the code blocks. The AgdaSuppressSpace environment ensures that extra space is only inserted before the first code block, and after the last one (but not if \AgdaNoSpaceAroundCode{} is used). Example usage:

    more code
  aligned with "code"
    aligned with "more code"
  hidden code
    also aligned with "more code"

Note that AgdaSuppressSpace environments should not be nested. There is also a combined environment, AgdaMultiCode, that combines the effects of AgdaAlign and AgdaSuppressSpace.

Controlling the typesetting of individual tokens

The typesetting of (certain) individual tokens can be controlled by redefining the \AgdaFormat command. Example:


% Insert extra space before some tokens.
    \equal{#1}{≡⟨} \OR
    \equal{#1}{≡⟨⟩} \OR
  }{\ }{}#2}

Note the use of \DeclareRobustCommand. The first argument to \AgdaFormat is the token, and the second argument the thing to be typeset.

Typesetting inline code

The backend only typesets code inside code blocks; inline code has to be typeset manually, e.g.:

Below we postulate a set called \AgdaDatatype{apa}.

  postulate apa : Set

You can find all the commands used by the backend (and which you can use manually) in the latex/agda.sty file. If you are doing a lot of manual typesetting, then you might want to introduce shorter command names, e.g.:


etc. Long names were chosen by default to avoid name clashes.

Semi-automatically typesetting inline code (experimental)

Since Agda version 2.4.2 there is experimental support for semi-automatically typesetting code inside text, using the references option. After loading the agda package with this option, inline Agda snippets will be typeset in the same way as code blocks — after post-processing — if referenced using the \AgdaRef command. Only the current module is used; should you need to reference identifiers in other modules, then you need to specify which other module manually by using \AgdaRef[module]{identifier}.

In order for the snippets to be typeset correctly, they need to be post-processed by the script from the Agda data directory. You can copy it into the current directory by issuing the command

$ cp $(dirname $(dirname $(agda-mode locate)))/ .

In order to generate a PDF, you can then do the following:

$ agda --latex {file}.lagda
$ cd latex/
$ perl ../ {file}.tex > {file}.processed
$ mv {file}.processed {file}.tex
$ xelatex {file}.tex

Here is a full example, consisting of a Literate Agda file Example.lagda and a makefile Makefile.



Here we postulate \AgdaRef{apa}.

  postulate apa : Set

AFLAGS=-i. --latex
LATEX=latexmk -pdf -use-make -xelatex

    $(AGDA) $(AFLAGS) $(SOURCE).lagda
    cd latex/ && \
    perl ../$(POSTPROCESS) $(SOURCE).tex > $(SOURCE).processed && \
    mv $(SOURCE).processed $(SOURCE).tex && \
    $(LATEX) $(SOURCE).tex && \
    mv $(SOURCE).pdf ..

See Issue #1054 on the bug tracker for implementation details.


Overloading identifiers should be avoided. If multiple identifiers with the same name exist, then AgdaRef will typeset according to the first one it finds.

Emulating %format rules

The LaTeX-backend has no feature analogue to lhs2TeX’s %format rules, however most systems come with sed which can be used to achieve similar goals. Given a file called, for example, replace.sed, containing:

# Super- and subscripts.
#s/\\textasciicircum\([^\}]*\)‿\([^\}]*\)/\$\^\\AgdaFontStyle\{\\scriptscriptstyle \1\}\_\\AgdaFontStyle\{\\scriptscriptstyle \2\}\$/g

s/\\textasciicircum\([^\}]*\)/\{\^\\AgdaFontStyle\{\\scriptscriptstyle \1\}\}/g

#s/‿\([^\}]*\)/\$\_\\AgdaFontStyle\{\\scriptscriptstyle \1\}\$/g

# Σ[ x ∈ X ] into (x : X) ×
s/\\AgdaRecord{Σ\[} \(.*\) \\AgdaRecord{∈} \(.*\) \\AgdaRecord{]}/\\AgdaSymbol\{(\}\1 \\AgdaSymbol\{:\} \2\\AgdaSymbol\{)\} \\AgdaFunction\{×\}/g

# Bind, Kleisli extension and fmap.

# Append.

# Comments.

We can postprocess the tex output as follows:

$ sed -f replace.sed {file}.tex > {file}.sedded
$ mv {file}.sedded {file}.tex

Note that the above sed file assumes the use of {xe|lua}latex where code is in math mode rather than text mode (as is the case when using the pdflatex compiler). The commented out variants of the substitution rules are their pdflatex equivalents.

The substitution rules dealing with super- and subscripts lets us write apa^bepa in the code for things we want superscripted in the output (\undertie does the same for subscripts).

Including Agda code into a larger LaTeX document

Sometimes you might want to include a bit of code without necessarily making the whole document a literate Agda file. Here is how to do this in the context of a beamer presentation, but the method should work similarly also for other documents. Given two files Presentation.tex and Code.lagda as follows:


% When using XeLaTeX, the following should be used instead:
% \documentclass[xetex]{beamer}
% \usefonttheme[onlymath]{serif}


\begin{frame}\frametitle{Some Agda code}

    \item The natural numbers


    \item Addition (\AgdaFunction{\_+\_})


data: Set where
  zero  :suc   : (n :) \end{code}

_+_ : ℕ
zero   + n = n
suc m  + n = suc (m + n)

we can use pdflatex to compile a presentation as follows:

$ agda --latex Code.lagda
$ latexmk -pdf -use-make Presentation.tex

If you are using a lot of unicode it might be more convenient to use xelatex instead. See comments about xelatex in Presentation.tex and compile as follows:

$ agda --latex Code.lagda
$ latexmk -xelatex -pdf -use-make Presentation.tex

The \ExecuteMetaData command is part of the catchfilebetweentags package. Also see the following thread on the mailing list for other methods of including Agda code into a presentation.


The following command-line options change the behaviour of the LaTeX backend:

Changes the output directory where agda.sty and the output .tex are placed to directory. Default: latex.
Generates highlighting without typechecking the file. See Quicker generation without typechecking.
Count extended grapheme clusters when generating LaTeX code. This option can be given in OPTIONS pragmas. See Counting Extended Grapheme Clusters.

The following options can be given when loading agda.sty by using usepackage[options]agda:

Colour scheme which highlights in black and white.
Colour scheme similar to the colours used in Epigram1.
Instructs the package to not select any fonts, and to not change the font encoding.
Instructs the package to not change the input encoding, and to not load the ucs package.
Enables inline typesetting of referenced code.
Enables hyperlink support.

Counting Extended Grapheme Clusters

The alignment feature regards the string , containing + and a combining character, as having length two. However, it seems more reasonable to treat it as having length one, as it occupies a single column, if displayed “properly” using a monospace font. The flag --count-clusters is an attempt at fixing this. When this flag is enabled the backend counts “extended grapheme clusters” rather than code points.

Note that this fix is not perfect: a single extended grapheme cluster might be displayed in different ways by different programs, and might, in some cases, occupy more than one column. Here are some examples of extended grapheme clusters, all of which are treated as a single character by the alignment algorithm:

│ │
│ │

Note also that the layout machinery does not count extended grapheme clusters, but code points. The following code is syntactically correct, but if --count-clusters is used, then the LaTeX backend does not align the two field keywords:

record: Set₁ where  field A : Set
                        field B : Set

The --count-clusters flag is not enabled in all builds of Agda, because the implementation depends on the ICU library, the installation of which could cause extra trouble for some users. The presence of this flag is controlled by the Cabal flag enable-cluster-counting.

Quicker generation without typechecking

A faster variant of the backend is available by invoking QuickLaTeX from the Emacs mode, or using agda --latex --only-scope-checking. When this variant of the backend is used the top-level module is not type-checked, only scope-checked. Note that this can affect the generated document. For instance, scope-checking does not resolve overloaded constructors.

If the module has already been type-checked successfully, then this information is reused; in this case QuickLaTeX behaves like the regular LaTeX backend.

Known issues

The unicode-math package and older versions of the polytable package (still in the Debian stable) are incompatible, which can result in errors in generated latex code. The workaround is to download a more up to date version of polytable and either put it with the generated files, or install it globally.

Complete LaTeX Template for Literate Agda with Unicode

This template has been tested under Debian and Ubuntu with TexLive, but should also work in other distributions. For xelatex or lualatex, only \usepackage{agda} should be needed.



% The following packages are needed because unicode
% is translated (using the next set of packages) to
% latex commands. You may need more packages if you
% use more unicode characters:


% This handles the translation of unicode to latex:


% Some characters that are not automatically defined
% (you figure out by the latex compilation errors you get),
% and you need to define:


% Add more as you need them (shouldn't happen often).


 -- your Agda code goes here